By Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Johnston, Eric
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Extra info for A Grammar of Mina
Consider the behavior of object pronouns. ) 'It was this person who hit me. 3 Tone and vowel replacement When a suffix is added to a morpheme ending in a vowel, and the vowel is by itself not a grammatical marker, such a vowel is deleted before suffixation. The tone that the vowel carried is also deleted. The tone of the vocalic suffix becomes the tone of the new syllable. Consider the addition of the goal-orientation marker a. The evidence that this marker has high tone is provided by its realization after CVC verbs: (90) ngül-yn Bombay td macirj 3SG COMP husband-PL stick GEN DEM luw-a-y nidk say-GO-3SG would you 'She said, my husband, this stick, say to it' (91) ha ndi dzannam skdn 2SG HAB fmd-GO 1DU thing mdnä wä tiki like DEM where 'Where do you find us things like this?
The third instantiation has high tone, as it again occurs in the matrix clause: (86) kwayäy squirrel 6dt take gddzdmbdl guitar ngdn 3SG 6dt take ditwdrj naka ANAPH kd kap-a nd- 6dt INF ngdn 3SG break-GO dly-a put-GO go-GO zd ngdn EE 3SG take back kd kdddm PREP calabash abd nda a ngdn wta ASSC go:GO 3SG PRED house 'Squirrel took his guitar, the one that he broke, he came to put it on his back, as his calabash, and then he returned home' The tone on monosyllabic and polysyllabic words borrowed from Ian- 6.
In the following example, the goal orientation marker a is fronted to e following a high front vowel, and then it replaces / as a result of i deletion: (53) i md si-a-yi tdtd za 3PL REL run-GO-STAT 3PL EE 'they have returned running' is realized as: [ ma se-y tots za] r (54) x v / jvj_^ ' i kd si-a-k zä 3PL REL run-GO-lSG EE 'they ran for me' -» [i ks se-k zä] A slightly different type of vowel fronting involves schwa. Schwa becomes fronted when separated from the high front vowel by a sonorant.
A Grammar of Mina by Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Johnston, Eric