By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
The 2009 ASHRAE instruction manual - basics covers uncomplicated ideas and information utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up-to-date with learn backed via ASHRAE and others, this quantity comprises 39 chapters masking normal engineering details, easy fabrics, weather info, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and emblems, in addition to actual houses of fabrics. From the CD-ROM, the climatic layout stipulations tables were additional to this reference, that includes climatic conditions for almost each significant urban on this planet.
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Additional resources for 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition)
Such separation is commonly called stall (Kline 1959). Larger expansions may use splitters that divide the diffuser into smaller sections that are less likely to have separations (Moore and Kline 1958). Another technique for controlling separation is to bleed some low-velocity fluid near the wall (Furuya et al. 1976). Alternatively, Heskested (1970) shows that suction at the corner of a sudden expansion has a strong positive effect on geometric separation. Drag Forces on Bodies or Struts Bodies in moving fluid streams are subjected to appreciable fluid forces or drag.
Screens or perforated plates can be used for smoothing velocity profiles (Wile 1947) and flow spreading. Their effectiveness and loss coefficients depend on their amount of open area (Baines and Peterson 1951). Example 2. Water at 68°F flows through the piping system shown in Figure 14. 5, and the valve is a fully open globe valve with K = 10. 01 in. 08 u 10–5 ft2/s. a. 1 ft3/s? Solution: Apply Equation (13) between stations 1 and 2 in the figure. Note that p1 = p2, V1 | 0. Assume D | 1. 1, and V 2/2g = V 22/2g = 8Q2/S2gD4.
For a diffuser of about 7° total angle, the loss is only about one-sixth of the loss predicted by Equation (35). The diffuser loss for total angles above 45 to 60° exceeds that of the sudden expansion, but is moderately influenced by the diameter ratio of the expansion. Optimum diffuser design involves numerous factors; excellent performance can be achieved in short diffusers with splitter vanes or suction. 1. 5. At this optimum curvature, a 45° turn had 63%, and a 180° turn approximately 120%, of the loss of a 90° bend.
2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers